Tracy

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Tuesday, August 09, 2005

Water Crisis in India -- Research Paper

Abstract :

"Freshwater is not only precious and scarce but also a finite resource which is unevenly distributed."(Jaitly, 2003, para4). Water is the most important natural resources in the world. People need to drink the fresh water, industry need to use fresh water for their product, and farmers need it to irrigate the crops. If there is not enough fresh water , people will get sick and have a lot of diseases. According to the statistic, 1.1billion people did not have access to clean drinking water and 2.4 billion people to a safe and respectable sanitation facility( Jaitly, 2003, para4). Every one have to use the fresh water, but the fresh water resources is decreasing now. The government and every one should take the problem serious.
There are three things the Government should do. First, It should make a law for the factory. Require the factory have the sewage treatment. Second, the Government have to make a protecting plan for preserving the clean water. Third, the Government have to teach the people for using the water efficiently. The Human also have the responsibility for wasting water. People should understand if they don’t preseure the water , then the earth will run out of the water some day.



Introduction :

This topic “Water Crisis in India” attracted me that we should care about this issue. If there is no clean water in India any more, water shortage can cause problems. The underdeveloped water seweage, water supply and other infrastructure is restraining the economic and industrial growth which is improving the living situation. There are also a lot of environment problems that are more aggravated in India, such as defiled water and weather changes. Indians didn’t use the water carefully for irrigation .

There are some reasons for the water crisis. First, Indians pumped the water from the underground for irrigation, and now they almost run out of the water table. The Government has tried to solve the water problem , but it can’t put into practice because of politics. Second , the weather’s change effect the river side of the Ganges. The Ganges is important to the Indians , because it is the religion of the Indian. Third, the factory didn’t clean the sewerage in the pollution. It just put the sewerage into the river. Even though the water is polluted , Indians still use the water for drinking ,and taking a shower. “The river is making people sick.”(Thompson,2005,para14)


The reasons caused the water crisis :

1.Population
One-third of the world’s poor live in India, where 35% of its population live on less than a dollar a day.(The right to die,2005,para1). The population increases quickly everyday. The water usage also has grown at twice the rate of population(Srivatsan,2005,para4). When the population is rising, the requirement of the water will increase. The usage of the water is different between rural and urban area. There are 95 percentage of the urban area population can have the fresh water, but there are only 79 percent of the rural area population that have access the fresh water. The urban area always uses the underground and river system. It is almost run out of the water in summer.

There are two reasons for water crisis which caused by the population. First, the population has outgrown the supply of the water. Second, the poor sanitation facility made the living conditions more deteriorater. Consequently, per capita water resources dwindle as the population grows(Srivatsan,2005,para8).

2.Agricultural
About 70 percent of the population is dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood (Sharma,2005,para1). Indian is very popular that flooding the field for irrigation . The water is the most important resources for irrigation , but the supply of the water is reducing now. The farmer consumed 88%(Global News Wire,2005,para1) of the fresh water for irrigation. They used to lift the water by buckets, but they use the electric pumps now. The pumps which transformed Indian farming bring 200 cubic kilometers of water to the surface each year(Pearce, 2004,para6). The Indian farmer has destroyed the underground supply, and they are almost out of the water which they had below the surface . If they need the water, they should use wells and pumps for themselves , now. Although the government had the irrigation system, it seldom works now. There are some places in India which will exhaust the water in the 10 years. “The last Indian government proposed a massive $200 billion River Interlinking Project designed to redistribute water around the country.”(Pearce,2004,para14).The Indian government tried to solve the crisis, but the proposal couldn’t be carried out because of politics.

3.Industrial
(a)Pollution
All of India’s 14 major rivers are badly polluted(Tauris,1992,p305). Industry pours the untreated sewage into the river, because it only have the poor recycling and poor wastewater treatment . The city of New Delhi dumps 200 million liters of raw sewage and 20 million liters of industrial wastes in to the Yamuna River every day as the river passes through the city on its way to the Ganges(Tauris,1992,p305). There are a lot of people who depend on the Ganges for living in India. If the people drink the polluted water, it will causes a lot of diseases. For example, SIV Industries which is located upstream from the river has used the river water and dumped the sewage into the river. The residents who live in the downstream river, used the water for drinking and irrigation. They have skin allergies and decline in crop productivity, because they used the water which flow from the upstream river cite.
(b)Consumption
Water consumption by industries is increasing. In the fast growing developing countries like India, it usually increases the industrial water use. The uses of the industrial water is affect the economy. If the GDP increases in India, then the uses of water for industrial purposes also increases. Industrial need to use a large amount of the water. Like food ,beverage and chlor-alkali industry have to use the water for their product. It is still a question that how much does the water used by the industrial. One of the factory is the Coke. Coke started its bottling operations in the late 1990s (2005,April 23,India Clippings ,Global News Wire.) . It makes the water shortages for the irrigation and public wells in India. But the company said , it didn’t have the responsibility for the use of water in India . Coke is very irresponsible, because it destroy the environment and threat the human’s right who uses the same river with the Coke .

4.Climate Change
Climate change affects fresh water production and distribution. About 75 per cent of the world’s water requirement is from the frozen ice and glaciers life. The other 25 percent is from the soil moisture . The massive Himalayan glacier that feeds the river is disintegrating due to a smog-generated microclimate that now hangs over the mountains(Thompson,2005,para3). The Ganges is being destroyed by the weather, so it is also a serious problem, now. The Ganges is important for the Indians , so the water crisis is equal to the spiritual crisis.


Main Arguments:

1.The way to save the water from Industrial development
There are a lot of methods that can rescue the water problem for the industry . The poor water treatment can combine with source reduction, reuse of process water, effluent treatment, recycling of treated effluent and waste minimization. The government must regulate and enforce industrial , if industry doesn’t have complete water treatment. Improve the technology can reduce the amount of the industry ‘s water, because it can use the reuse process water or recirculate process water through the high technology. Installing new process technology and recent technological development are more expensive than use the reuse process water.

2.Rainwater harvesting
The water crisis can be easily sovlved with the city and town using the rainwater-harvesting techniques. The Centre for Science and Environment connect with NGO , cite has a Rain Centre in India. The organization tries to tell people how important it is for saving water immediately. It also teaches the people how to save the water easily. The rainwater harvesting means catching and holding rain where it falls , and people can store it in a tank or use it to recharge groundwater. (2004,U.S. Water News Online).The rainwater harvesting is probably the most urgent strategy for saving the water.

3.Government’s Responsibility
The government also has the responsibility for the water issue. It didn’t have any ordinance about how many pumps can use into the saturated strata beneath their fields or how long can they draw the water in a day, they should have some rules to prevent the water crisis. The government should restrict to the factory that should have the sewage disposal system for the slop, they can’t discard the slop into the water without disposal system.

The Government should make a limit for the irrigation. For example, how long can the people use the water for irrigation, how many water can the people use in a day for irrigation and how much is the fine cost if people use the chemical and pesticides.

4.Human’s Responsibility
The Ganges is significant for Indian’s life and soul. Although some people use the bottled water instead of the river, the Indian still believe that the Ganges is valuable for them. Because the Ganges is their religion, they cannot make a random change the traditional rules. Someone should teach the Indians that cannot follow the traditions . Dr.Mishra who is a holy man and also a engineer still take a shower in the river cite everyday, even he knows the water is polluted. He just can not disobey the traditions. The Indians can not just insist that believe the tradition. Follow the traditions is not the worst thing, but people should consider which is good for them.

The Indian Farmer didn’t only use their water resourcefully, they also destroyed the land that they had. They just think about their profit, they didn’t consider what will happen in the future. I think maybe they didn’t know how to use the water in a advantageous way. If they have the rules to follow, they won’t run out of the water in last years.


Conclusion :

Water is the most important thing in our life. We have to use the water efficiently and reduce the wastage. If we don’t drink the water or drink the water which is dirty , we feel uncomfortable , get sick or even could die . We only have a earth which is suitable for us, there is no other one for us to live. If we don’t want to lose it, we should protect the environment which we have. We can not destroy it anymore, because the nature resources will exhaust in some day. We also have to values what we have from the nature. That’s what we have to do from now.
The nature that changes everyday, the people destroyed the nature everyday. You never know what will happen in the next minutes. You don’t know the nature when will resist the people . If we don’t have make the plan for the river immediately , we will see “An end to one of the biggest civilizations.” (Thompson,2005,para11).


Bibliography :

1.Srivatsan, P.(2005,July,06). India thirsts for better water
management practices. Retrieved July,20,2005 from
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2005/07/06stories/2005070600220900.htm
2.Thompson ,G .(2005,July,05). India-Water Crisis. Retrieved
July,18,2005 from
http://www.abc.net.au/foreign/content/2005/s1404374.htm
3. S.D. Sharma.(2005,July,05). Recharging Ground Water Resources.
Retrieved July,18,2005,from http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/
4.(2005,May), JBIC loan targets water reforms in India, Worldwide
news,Jul 13,2005.
5.(2005,March 21), Fresh water may soon become scarece, The Indian
Express Online Media Ltd, Jul 13,2005
6.Pearce,F.(2004,August,28).Asian farmers suck the continent dry.
Retrieved July 13,2005,from http;//search.epnet.com/
7.(2004,August),Rainwater harvesting can tackle India’s water
crisis,U.S. Water News Online, Retrieved July,07,2005,from
http://www.uswaternews.com/archives/arcconserv/4rainharv8.html
8.Kelly D.Alley.2002.On the Banks of the Ganga. The university of
michigan press.
9.Harrison,P., I.B. Tauris, 1992,The third revolution: environment,
population and a sustainable world, London.

Thursday, August 04, 2005

Interview with Health Services

Deer attacked seven people in the campus of the Southern Illinois University in June. The school put up warning signs to tell people to be careful. It never happened before in Carbondale, because the deer ran away if people got close to them. The deer’s population which lives in the campus is increasing now. The construction occupied the forests , so the deer have to move in to the campus. It is a very unusual deer attack.

I have interviewed with Kim, who works in the Health Services. In this time, the female deer just wants to protect her baby, so she will be afraid of people who are close. After the accidents happened, the school put a cordon around the area. The school also put the news on television , news paper and other media. The school tried to make everyone know about the accident and told people to keep away from the area. Kim thinks the school doesn’t have any responsibilities. Because the deer are the wildlife : there is no way to control them. If the student gets hurt , it only costs six dollars for an x-ray, bandage and medical care. Next year, the school will probably put more information out in the media and look around more.

written by Tracy.

Sunday, July 31, 2005

On-campus deer attacks prompt warnings

Is it dangerous to take a walk in the woods? The deer and the doe attacked seven people in the campus of the Southern Illinois University. This accident happens very rare, so it is difficult to cope with the situation.

To prevent the accident happen in the campus again, the female deer have tied in fawning season. According to research, there are more and more deer in the campus. A lot of buildings occupied the woods, so the deer have to live in the campus. The school has a warning which student should be careful when walking in the wood’s paths.

It's very dangerous when you walk in the wood's path. No one knows when the animal appears in the woods. The school's warning is not enough to protect the student. The school should take the deer’s attack seriously, not just a "sign". The Government also has to solve the problems, otherwise someone will get hurt in the campus again.

written by Tracy

Saturday, July 30, 2005

Another Frill is Gone

Do you enjoy the flight without the complimentary food?On September 1 , Passengers won’t have the pretzels during the flight in US Airways. The US Airways will save more than one million per year. It will only provide the complimentary juice and soft drink to passenger on the flight. The soft drink will disappear some day, too. In the future, it will have a lot of problems. For example, when passenger has the soft drink, they will wait for the pretzels which flight attendant should give them before. Passengers will have complaints at first; the airlines need to know how to solve these problems. There are some airlines that provide free pillows, magazines and plush airport clubs which spend hundred of millions per year. American Airlines earns $40,000 when they take out the black olives from salads. For saving money, the airlines tries to find another punier thing. The Southwest airline knows the charge for producing food, so they never provide the complimentary food. Their goal is passenger can use less money for taking the airplane.

There are more services in flight will vanish soon, because the airline don't want to spend the money for the passenger. We will buy any food including the soft drink in flight. Passengers should have the right for against the airlines. If the services in flight disappear, the flight ticket should become more cheaper.

written by Tracy

Friday, July 22, 2005

Report: Other factors for childhood obesity

Did you believe your BMI which has been measured? This articles is about the fact that there is no evidence that children with a high BMI(body-mass index) should loose their weight. The BMI is still useful, but it just needs more evidence. The pediatricians also have misunderstanding about how to define the obese children. They always use the weight and height for distinguish the obese and lean, but it can’t be used this way to define the obese children.


It’s not a good phenomenon about too many obese children now. Because parents don’t care about what kind of food their children have. So children don’t know how they can eat healthier. It’s a serious problem in more developed countries now.

written by Tracy

Wednesday, July 20, 2005

Fresh water crisis in India

Tracy
EAP2 WW 054
Fresh water crisis in India
July,18,05

The article “India-Water Crisis” from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation discusses water issues in India. There are a lot of people who depend on the Ganges for living in India. The water crisis in Ganges caused by different reasons. One of the reasons is a smog-generated microclimate offecting the river cite. The other reason is pollution, like industrial waste, sewerage and other effects. The Ganges is the most important belief in India, and the water crisis in Ganges is equate to call spiritual crisis. Dr.Veer Bhadra Mishra has planed to conserve the water, but the plan which has dearth now. He said the pollution in Ganges is becoming acuten. The water academic Dr.Vandana Shiva who talked to Dr.Veer Bhadra Mishra, thinks we should rescue the problem from Ganges. If we don’t have any method for recover the water, we will lose the earth which we have in our life. India’s National River Conservation Directorate said the water don’t have the risk of the health. But according the reporter discovers “The river is making people sick.”(Thompson,2005,para14)

The Ganges is significant for Indian’s life and soul. Although some people use the bottled water instead of the river, the Indian still believe that the Ganges is valuable for them. Because the Ganges is their religion, they cannot make a random change the traditional rules. But the Indians can not just insist that believe the tradition. Follow the traditions is not the worst thing, but people should consider which is good for them .

Pollution is a serious problem in India. The government and The Indians also should plan how to preserve the Ganges. Like the government should restrict to the factory that should have the sewage disposal system for the slop, they can’t discard the slop into the water without disposal system. Someone should teach the Indian that cannot follow the traditions . Dr.Mishra who is a holy man and also a engineer still take a shower in the river everyday, even he knows the water is polluted. He just can not disobey the traditions.

The nature that changes everyday. You never know what will happen in the next minutes. You don’t know the nature when will resist the people . If we don’t have make the plan for the river immediately , we sill see “An end to one of the biggest civilizations.” (Thompson,2005,para11).

Reference : Thompson ,G .(2005,July,05). India-Water Crisis. Retrieved July,18,2005 from http://www.abc.net.au/foreign/content/2005/s1404374.htm

Tuesday, July 19, 2005


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